Walking in the Orkneys, Faroes, Iceland and Greenland – Part 15, Iceland – Reykjavik – The Sculpture and Shore Walk, Smallpox and Leprosy, a Rescue from the Sea.

Post 290: 14th August 2014, Reykjavik

We were due in Reykjavik, the world’s most northerly capital, at 8am.  I was awake well before that and watched the pilot boat arrive at 7am. P1060037A container ship from St John’s in Eastern Canada was just leaving. P1060047We passed the Hallgrimskirka Church, which I had been to before in 2015 and which is the tallest building in central Reykjavik, its tower shaped to give the impression of basalt.  P1060048The coastguard was in dock, no doubt looking for smugglers. I do know someone who smuggled gin onto our ship! P1060050

P1060053We passed Videy Island where, on 9th October 2007, Yoko Ono and Sean Lennon inaugurated the ‘Imagine Peace Tower’ (Icelandic: Frioarsulan meaning ‘the peace column’) on John Lennon’s birthday.  The ‘Imagine Peace Tower’ was relighted on December 21st, winter solstice, and beamed until New Years Eve 2007.

It is a laser beam which Yoko Ono plans to have lit everyday on his birthday and penetrates the sky until December 8th, the date he was shot.

It may also be lit on other major occasions. P1060051We were therefore docked ‘near the Reykavik sign’ on the far top right shown on the map below. The city has one of the highest standards of living in the world, possibly paid for by the shuttle bus fares of £18 return per person from our dock to the city centre! P1130207We decided to walk along the Sculpture and Shore Walk to the main dock area; it is about 2.5 miles to the Harpa Concert Hall and Conference Centre.  In 2015 we had already seen much of the city centre. It was a bit dank but is a pleasant walk with a proper tarmac footpath. A guide said that this year was the worst weather in Iceland for over 100 years. Even in a good year the weather is very changeable as Arctic Polar and Atlantic fronts do battle over Iceland. P1120993There is a lot of interest to be seen in the Laugarnes area. P1120995

P1120996A leprosy hospital existed here and two French seamen died of smallpox! P1120997The hospital and military huts are no longer there. P1130010The skyline of Reykjavik soon came into view. P1120999There are angelica plants growing wild which, once crystallised, are used in cakes. P1130001There are good views across the Vioyjarsund to the mountains.P1130002

P1130003There are some unusual homes and gardens in the area! P1130004


P1130006P1130008P1130007A little further along there was a sculpture from 1991.


On the other side of the road is the house where in 1986 the Reagan-Gorbachev summit took place, where the superpower leaders of the USA and Russia met to discuss nuclear disarmament. Although the talks eventually stalled, they were symbolic of a breakthrough in East-West negotiations and stood as markers of the beginning of the end of the Cold War. P1130011Some of the rocks acting as storm defences showed evidence of previous volcanic activity.P1130014

P1130015 Some made a good sculpture. P1130016We then passed the beautiful Suncraft (Solfar) designed by Jon Guunar Arnason and installed in its present location in 1990, a year after his deathThe sun ship symbolizes the promise of new, undiscovered territory. It is not a Viking ship as thought by many. Jon argued that Sun Voyager should be seen as a vessel that transports souls to the realm of death. It was envisaged as a dreamboat, an ode to the sun symbolising light and hope.  P1130017

P1130020We then reached the Harpa and went in to watch a complete 360 degree sound and visual 15 minute film about Iceland, the volcanoes, landscapes, waterfalls and mountains. It was quite stunning and well worth the highish cost (£15). Also there are free toilets in the building, which gives a discount in Iceland as some toilets cost between £1-£2 in Iceland – credit cards can be used!


Having relaxed and restored some energy we continued to the dock area only for Celia to shout out to me that someone had gone into the sea.

Celia then shouted to the man to keep calm and not flap about, although whether he spoke English we will never know. Fortunately, a young man ran to get a lifebuoy from a Security Office, threw it out and the man was able to get it round his waist. P1130024An indredibly brave security guard then jumped in and swam towards him, holding him until a rescue boat arrived. It was very concerning as the water would have been very cold. Eventually he was hauled into the boat by the three strong young men and not long after an ambulance arrived.



It was distressing to watch and we had to get our composure back before continuing our walk to the rest of the dock area to be continued in the next blog……..





Walking in the Orkneys, Faroes, Iceland and Greenland – Part 14 Greenland, Walking in Qaqortoq

Post 289: 11 August 2018, Qaqortoq

Qaqortoq, formerly Julianehab, is the fourth largest town in Greenland and the most populated town in Southern Greenland, with approximately 3229 people. Quartortoq means ‘White Palace’, presumably relating to how it looks in winter rather than in August. P1120978It is located on the Qaqortoq Fjord alongside the Labrador Sea.P1130199There are a number of walks in the area and Cumbria Man and myself decided to walk to the far end of Tasersuaq Lake, again leaving the ladies to browse around the townThe walks are not signed. IMG_E3027

The ship arrived at 12.30 and we had to tender into the town. We had until 18.00 hours to catch the last tender back.

Qaqortoq is a seaport and trading station. Fish and shrimp processing, tanning, fur production and ship maintenance and repair are important, but the economy is based primarily on educational and administrative services.

Tourism also plays a part in the economy of the town. The coloured houses and arts and culture appeal to tourists, approximately two thirds of whom come from Denmark.

The area has been occupied since prehistoric times, beginning with the Saqqaq culture  approximately 4,300 years ago, then the Dorset people around 2,800 years ago. The Norse arrived in the 10th century and stayed until the 15th century.

The present town was founded in in 1774 by the Dano-Norwegian trader Anders Olsen, on behalf of the General Trading Company. The current layout and facilities are as below.  There is even a youth hostel with wifi! IMG_3029IMG_E3028The Tourist Office and souvenir shop seemed a good place to start our walk. P1120953Just along from there is the Church of Our Saviour..

It has the traditional ship hanging from the ceiling P1120980Near the church is the oldest fountain in Greenland, Mindebronden, which was finished in 1932. It was the only fountain in Greenland until another was built in Sisimiut.P1120954The oldest standing building is a black tarred log building from 1797.

Following the stream past the church,P1120955we soon came across some of the rock art which is part of the Stone and Man project. From 1993 to 1994 Qaqortoq artist Aka Hoegh presided over the project, which involved 18 artists from Finland, Sweden, Norway, Iceland and Greenland carving 24 sculptures into the rock faces and boulders in town. Today there are over 40 sculptures.P1060013

P1060011 There are some interesting street names!

P1120981Our lake destination soon appeared and there is some colourful flora in the areaP1120959



P1120960Although the temperature was only about 10C degrees (50F) children were swimming in the lake.P1120961 There were a few mosquitos around further along the lake and so we needed our nets on our heads.P1120966 Soon after passing some local joggers we got to the far end of the lake.P1120970In view of the limited time we decided to return the way we had come along the lake. P1120975

P1120964Before diverting past the football pitchP1120976 To the busy residential part of town. P1120963

P1120977We had walked just over 8 miles.

Back on ship, we left Greenland with some regrets but with some amazing memories.

We had two days at sea before reaching Reykjavik the capital of Iceland where we were to encounter a rescue at sea……………..








Walking in the Orkneys, Faroes, Iceland and Greenland – Part 13 Greenland, Nuuk (Godthab) , Mummies and Inuit Boats.

Post 288: 10 August 2018, Walking around Nuuk

We arrived at the port of Nuuk, the capital of Greenland, at 9.30am and were able to dock rather than tender. There are some fine mountains and fjords surrounding the capital.P1120885Interestingly there are water taxis.P1050906



P1050925There was a short shuttle bus journey to the city centre. We only had until 14.30 when our ship was due to depart. However, it is possible to walk around the city which, although the largest in Greenland and its Capital, is quite small. The population is only 17,316 (2016), although it is expanding as people migrate to the city from poorer more remote regions of Greenland. A third of Greenland’s population live in Nuuk. It has a cosmopolitan feel about it. There seems to be a lot of new building work taking place, P1050940 although it still only has 62 miles (100km) of road, the latter the most advanced road network in Greenland.

Temperatures range from minus -31.5C (-26.5F) in January to 26.3C (79.3F) in July but more normally are 10C (50F) in July. We had a warm August day. P1130197After alighting from the bus we visited the Tourist Information Office and I purchased a fabulous, stunning, photographic book (their last one). I highly recommend it although I am not sure it is readily available in the UK. It covers Greenland, Svabard, Iceland and Eastern Canada.  The author and photographer Uri Golman has a web-site: http://www.urigolman.com


IMG_3126We then walked to the older colonial harbour of Nuuk where the cathedral and the National Museum (no. 29 on map) are situated along a lovely waterfront. On occasions whales can be seen from the waterfront as well as icebergs/flows.

P1120887Nuuk Cathedral, the Church of Our Saviour, is a wooden Lutheran cathedral with a clock tower and steeple. P1050908Behind and to the left of the cathedral on a small hill is a statue of Hans Egede. It commemorates the Dano-Norwegian Lutheran missionary Hans Egede who founded Nuuk in 1728.  His house, built in 1721, is the oldest building in Greenland and is found near the harbour and is used for government receptions. P1050919 It is quite colourful near the harbour with many buttercups and other flowers. P1050918

P1050914There are number of arts and crafts shops where it is possible to purchase local products, some carved from reindeer antlers or stone. P1130198Whilst Celia was making purchases and I waited ‘patiently’ outside the second shop, a local school passed and one of teacher’s heralded from Manchester – a small world. P1050916There are some attractive houses and views in this waterfront area overlooking a fjord. P1120932

P1050923Below the houses is the National Museum, which is excellent. It was inaugurated in the mid-1960s and has many artifacts relating to Greenland’s archaeology, history, art and handicrafts. However, most striking are the Qilakitsog Mummies.







There is much else in the museum including these handcrafted pieces.

Many traditional clothes

Inuit boats


Language information

There were many other items and other information.


P1120899Leaving the museum we headed back to the city centre. Time was pressing. Near the bus stop was the cultural centre for concerts, cinema and exhibitions. P1120935Nearby a couple off our ship were playing instruments, which the local Greenlanders enjoyed. P1120934This commemorated the Arctic Winter Games 2016P1050924Back at the ship we were quickly back to ‘our culture’ with the sail away party at 14.30. P1050934

As a helicopter passed overhead in the opposite direction. P1050927

P1050946P1050945To be followed with an exquisite sunset….P1050992



















































































































































Walking in the Orkneys, Faroes, Iceland and Greenland – Part 12 Greenland, Kangerlussuaq, a UNESCO World Heritage site – Russell Glacier.

Post 287: 9 August 2018, Kangerlussuaq

Having left Sisimiut at 18.00 hours and reached our most northerly point, including being above the Arctic Circle, we were now heading south and were due to arrive in Kangerlussuaq at 7am. P1120878Kangerlussuaq is the only inland town in Greenland and is located at the end of the 106 mile (170km) Kangerlussuaq fjord, which is the longest in western Greenland.  We crossed back below the Arctic Circle halfway along the fjordThere is only a population of 499 in Kangerlussuaq.

It would be necessary to tender from the ship. Due to mud flats and a low tide only 25 passengers could go in each tender as opposed to the normal 70.  However, most Britains are good at queuing, even at temperatures that turned out to be up to 22 degrees.

The big landing platform was a wreck from the military occupation of the area in the Second World War. P1120867 The ship Ocean Diamond (Quark Expeditions) was also in the fjord. It only has a tonnage of 8,282 and 207 passengers and is for discovery-minded participants who enjoy a comfortable travel environment. P1050893As we approached the land in tender boats it occurred to me that these World War II landing craft might have been useful to increase the number of passengers that could be landed!P1050804It also reflected how Kangerlussuaq came into being due to the war. The town was founded in 1941 when it was opened as a US Air Force Base. The Americans remained here until 1992.

There is a lot of writing on the rocks at the small dock. The earliest I could identify was 1959.

The air base briefly came under Danish control in 1950 but, following mounting concerns about the Cold War threat, a new agreement saw the U.S. re-open Bluie-West-8 under the name of Sondrestrom Air Base in 1951.P1120866


P1120864After lunch we had an excursion booked to the Russell Glacier on partially off-road 4 wheel drive adapted vehicles. P1120835The bus was an interesting adaptation! Larger tyres? They were needed because it was a 16 mile (25km) drive along a track that in many parts was just sand. P1120836On the way out we passed a few ‘hikers’P1050819



P1120815We passed some unusual rock art and trees.P1120809

P1120812 The area is home to Greenland’s most diverse fauna including muskoxen, caribou, arctic hare and gyrfalcons. From the coach we saw the first two but from a moving bumpy coach at distance they were almost impossible to photograph. The muskoxen were very large – we had earlier seen knitting yarn made from gathered muskoxen fleece for sale at £60 a ball! P1050888We also saw the site where a Lochheed T-33 Shooting Star and two other planes had crashed in a blizzard in 1968. All pilots are believed to have ejected safely.

We followed the dusty track along the river Qinnguata Kuussua alluvial valley.P1120863


P1120861Before reaching the glacier we stopped at an incredible UNESCO World Heritage viewpoint .P1050824






P1120834Flora was all around us.P1120853

We then drove past some locals who are not allowed to hunt in this UNESCO World Heritage area, but do go further afield to hunt muskoxen and caribou.P1120837 The glacier, which descends from the ice-cap, came into viewP1050832Finally, we reached it. P1050892

P1050874It was very impressive.P1120839P1120844P1120845The vertical walls reach as high as 131 feet (40metres)


P1050856There has been a biological darkening of glaciers due to cryoconite build-up. This is powdery windblown dust made of a combination of small rock particles, soot and bacteria. It is spread by wind and rain. It absorbs heat more quickly than white snow and ice and speeds up the melting of glaciers. Human influences such as emissions from cars, coal fired power stations and soot from fires play a part in its production as does rock particles from volcanic eruptions and mineral dust from warmer regions. P1050857


P1050859A dramatic end to a stunning day. Again the weather had been kind to us when it mattered and we felt very blessed.P1050863It is easy to forget that the locals, who are not wealthy, have to go and hunt for their food. As we arrived back at the tender dock, a father and his son were just going hunting. P1120868

P1120869There was about an hours delay in getting some passengers back onto the tender boats and one or two passengers did complain. However, if you wish to go to these remote stunning places you must be prepared to adjust to the local conditions, tides and weather. Otherwise don’t bother!

The ship was due to depart at 16.00 hours but actually departed at 18.30pm. No problem. We were able to sunbathe on deck in Greenland – in shorts. Unbelievable! Global warming is here and now with all the implications of melting ice-caps and glaciers.











Walking in the Orkneys, Faroes, Iceland and Greenland – Part 11 Greenland, Sisimiut, the 160 Mile Arctic Circle Trail – Ice-Cap to Cost!

Post 286: 8 August 2018, Sisimiut

When the ship’s Daily Information Sheet said we would find a wide range of options for being active in nature in Sisimiut, either taking relatively relaxed hikes or checking out activities for hard-core travellers, I hadn’t expected that there would be a 100 mile (160 km) hiking trail through the wilderness of Greenland. P1120784 I did buy this T-shirt in Sisimiut as I couldn’t resist the ‘mistake’ in the shirt:

Icecap to Cost instead of Icecap to Coast. 


The Arctic Circle Trail can be walked in 7-12 days. There are a couple of basic wooden huts for bad weather, but packing a tent is recommended. Only 300 people hike the trail every year and many are Danes (those Vikings again). It is possible to go days without seeing another walker. The normal season to walk is from June to August. Early in the summer swarms of mosquitos plague the area and mid-August is thought to be better, although they are still around. The only towns are at the beginning and the end of the trail, Sisimiut and Kangerlussuaq both of which I would be going to – albeit by ship! You have to be completely self-sufficient on the trail and mobile phone connection may be non existent. Not a walk for the inexperienced or those of a nervous disposition.

Most walkers start in Kangerlussuaq hiring a taxi to the trailhead and walking west to the coast. I was due to go there the next day by ship, boat and coach. It can snow there even in August!

We arrived at Sisimiut at 8am and it was a bit overcast. Some of the boats had seen better days. P1120765


P1120802I then had to decide what to do, given that the ship would depart again at 17.30. Of course I would have done the Arctic Circle Trail if I had been there for 12 days but, given I only had just under 12 hours (that’s my excuse!), a more leisurely hike seemed appropriate leaving the ladies to explore the town. There was a hike organised by the ship to Tele Island where Sisimuit started some 4,000 years ago. The Inuit used it as a hunting ground for many years. This would have included turf hut ruins and a burial ground. From the hike it is possible to see the mountain of Nasaasaq at 2,750 feet (785 metres), which dominates the town.IMG_E2990However, Cumbria Man and myself decided to work our own route out to the nearby lakes. We left the port area.

P1120788A good place to get one’s bearings on a walk (some would also say in life) is at the church, which is quite prominent in Sisimiut. P1050750Sisimiut is the second largest city (!) in Greenland with a population of 5,524 (2018) and has some unusual exposed waste disposal due to presumably cost, perma frost and the hard rock hereabouts. There is a small airport. P1050761It also has some poorer quality housing with unique bicycle storage facilities. P1050762 Boats are everywhere, here in front of the museum which specialises in Greenlandic trade, industry and shipping. P1120766P1120797The local cable car is also unique. P1120770Probably due to expansion of the town, the cemeteries with their characteristic wooden crosses are very close to the houses. P1050799

P1050800Dogs, boats and arctic cats are ‘parked’ outside houses. P1050753

P1120772We assumed these stone and turf units were not used for human habitation. P1120773P1120774Fishing and fish processing is the prominent industry in Sisimiut. P1120782

P1120783Hunting is also important to some of the local livelihoods, mainly seals, walrus, beluga whale, narwhale, reindeer and muskoxen. Indeed on our walk we heard a number of gunshots.

The Greenlandic flag is in evidence here and it was adopted on 21 June 1985 some years after home rule from Denmark was granted in 1978. It was designed by native Greenlander Thue Christiansen. The white strip represents the glaciers and ice-cap which covers more than 80% of the island. The white semi-circle represents the iceberg and pack ice.  The large red part symbolises the ocean. In other interpretations the circle is seen as representing the rising and setting of the sun and the midnight sun and polar night (total darkness).  P1050793Leaving town we passed the first lake.

Rocks feature as art extensively in and around the town. P1120775

We eventually got away from the town to more rugged countryside and our second lake. We thought we saw an arctic fox, but couldn’t be 100%. P1120776P1050769We then met a young Danish couple walking from the mountains who had been on a 12 day hike to the ice-cap, being totally self-sufficient, even to the extent of having solar panels on their rucksacks! Maybe they were just finishing the Arctic Circle Trail. 

After visiting the lake we passed through the area where the husky dogs are kept.P1120781

P1050773-1The puppies were very friendly and are allowed to roam free for up to 4 months.P1050787I think this may be a young snow bunting which we saw in the area. We also saw white adults.  P1050789 Also rooks are quite common.P1120791It is hard to believe that, despite all the ice and cold, there are 500 plant species within Greenland, 22 species of trees in the Sisimiut area and 63 species of herbs in central Greenland.

On my next blog I head to the start of the Arctic Circle Trail, a stunning UNESCO World Heritage site and the Russell Glacier descending from the ice-cap….


Walking in the Orkneys, Faroes, Iceland and Greenland – Part 10 Greenland, Sunrise at Sea and Sisimiut

Post 285: 7 August 2018, At Sea

At night I tend to leave my porthole curtains open in the hope of capturing a good sunrise next morning. There was a slight problem as sunrise was due at about 4.45am, which was a bit on the early side even for me. But it was a sea day and so I could always catch up with sleep later in the day.

Looking out of the porthole at about 4.00am (I seem to have an internal alarm clock for sunrises) I realised it should be a good one and got dressed and went on deck, trying not to wake my wife Celia.

I wasn’t to be disappointed as the sky was blood red and somewhat surprisingly I wasn’t the only person awake and up. P1050714Photographing sunrises and sunsets is one of my favourite subjects. I love this time of day when many others are asleep and I seem to have the world to myself, quiet and serene.

I tend to revert to manual settings on my cameras alternating from focal lengths of 24 to 600mm. The latter can give a completely different perspective, almost getting to the ‘heart’ of the sunrise or sunset and capturing images and shapes that the eye finds difficult to see without some magnification from a zoom.P1050727

P1050725 But sunsets, especially at sea, look good on a broader view too as they change colour, tone and shape over time. P1120757


P1120761And if you have a mountain peak and/or an iceberg in as well you have hit the jackpot!P1050728


P1050724After such a good start to the morning I then retired to the Marco Polo Bistro for tea and pastries, where I had a very enjoyable chat with Lawrence Robinson who was the excellent opera singer on the ship. He has even sung with Katherine Jenkins so must be good!

Little else happened on the sea day other than in the morning when we passed what looked to be where the Greenland ice-cap met the sea. At first I thought it was clouds in the far distance, but on further looking realised it must be a part of the ice-cap where it reaches the sea. P1050738

P1050735We arrived in Sisimiut next day at 8am in the morning. The second largest city in Greenland, situated 25 miles (40km) north of the Arctic Circle. 

It was billed in the ship’s daily information sheet as ‘offering plenty of opportunities for us to make exciting experiences that are highly unusual – even to Greenlanders themselves. There are a wide range of options for being active in nature – taking relaxed hikes or checking out activities for the more hard core traveller’.

I couldn’t wait to explore those opportunities………..but more of that in the next blog.

Walking in the Orkneys, Faroes, Iceland and Greenland – Part 9 Greenland, Narsarsuaq, Viking Eric The Red, a Walk with Large Mosquitos towards a Glacier too far.

Post 284: 6 August 2018 (PM): Narsarsuaq

Having survived hitting an iceberg at 3.15am, we arrived in Narsarsuaq at 7.00am. In 2010 it had a population of 158 and in 2015 only 145.

P1130168We passed Qassiarsuk where, according to Icelandic sagas, Greenland was discovered in 982 AD by Eirikr Porvaldsson (Eric the Red). He had been exiled from first Norway and then Iceland. According to legend Erik’s father was also exiled from Norway in 960 AD as a result of  ‘a number of killings’, and Erik’s entire family thus settled in Iceland. Here Erik the Red married Tjodhilde, but history repeated itself and his father’s fate also befell Erik. In 982 he was sentenced to exile from Iceland for three years for murder. He came to and named Greenland. The settlement at Qassiarsuk has been reconstructed.P1050665

P1050667This saga had particular interest for me as on 21st January 2017, as a birthday present consisting of a DNA test, I discovered, whilst on a ship to Norway, that I was 32% Viking.

I have yet to discover which 32% of me is Viking?! The remainder being mainly GB 38%, Ireland 25%, Europe West 4%. I have been following the Viking routes from Scandinavia to Dublin, Iceland and Greenland, hopefully eventually ending up in Newfoundland, Canada.

Like a true Viking I wished to explore the area and walk towards a glacier.P1120711Our route took us past the small airport.P1120714

To the Blue Ice Cafe, which has tourist information and maps of the area as well as wifi and refreshments.P1120717Adjoining is a museum recording the period of the USA and Danish development and use of the airport since the Second World War


P1120718The bus service and petrol station are interesting! The bus takes people from the airport to a nearby hotel. My bus-pass wouldn’t get me far in Greenland! I think the petrol station was self-service, with only two choices!

There is also interesting art work on one of the buildings.P1120743

As we left town we saw that old airforce buildings had been put to other uses.

One possible walk is to ascend Signal Hill, which gives beautiful views over the fjordP1050668

P1050672Suprisingly there is also an arboretum and unique ‘botanical garden of the Arctic‘. The aim is to establish a live collection of trees and bushes heralding from both the arctic and alpine tree-lines of the entire Northern Hemisphere. There are 110 plant species and over 50,000 trees of various provinces. P1050671We decided to press onto the glacier on an increasingly hot day and with an increasingly higher number of mosquitos. We passed an interesting structure, which looked like a fireplace. Behind it was a dam for hydro-electric power. P1120738We enjoyed seeing the plant life in the area.P1120727




P1050652Fed by water from the glacier.P1050644

P1120726A cairn indicated the variety of rocks in the area.P1050643We then passed an interesting snow fence experiment. P1120731P1120732Before climbing to a viewpoint.P1120733However, the glacier had retreated and we had insuffient time to reach it. I later got a peep of it and a photograph from the ship.P1050674In a day that had begun at 3.15am with the ship colliding with an iceberg, followed by a stunning trip to icebergs/ice flows in the morning (see previous blog) and then a 12.6 mile walk towards a glacier, I thought it only fitting to finish with icebergs and mountains photographed from the ship after we departed the port at 18.00 hours.

Mountains, glaciers and icebergs are intertwined and give life to each other. There is a strength to the glacier as it pushes forward in a creative but destructive way. It carves the mountains, valleys, rivers and ridges in a way that humans can only watch in awe.P1120750









A sleeping giantP1050701

P1050705And in these remote and poor areas man can only struggle to dispose of his waste and rubbish by burning it. Or just leaving it to ‘soil’ the earth. In the wealthier countries with re-cycling facilities he often does worse, throwing it out of the car or throwing it on the floor or leaving it in a plastic bag to ‘stain’ the countryside for years to come. P1050708